It may be that the out-of-state spouse has significant connections with Colorado and, if so, that out-of-state spouse likely can be required to submit to the jurisdiction of a Colorado court. There is a concept in the law called “long-arm jurisdiction.” This means that Colorado has the “log arm” to exercise jurisdiction over someone who is not currently living here, by forcing them to submit to Colorado’s jurisdiction.
“Long arm” jurisdiction may exist when the absent spouse has lived in Colorado, as is the case when someone has lived in the state but moved away. In most cases, if someone has made Colorado her or his home in the past for any appreciable amount of time, the state courts likely could exercise jurisdiction over him or her.
Even if the absent spouse has only come into the state for vacations or to conduct business, the state may have jurisdiction over her or him. If, for example, the absent spouse has come into Colorado repeatedly to vacation, has spent money in the state, and has had other ties with the state, there may be long-arm jurisdiction.
If you are wondering whether your spouse could be subject to Colorado jurisdiction, it is probably best to consult with an attorney.